Sequence 1: Volcanoes

The following translation is graciously provided by ISTIC.

This sequence starts with a little etymology, then with some documentary studies (previous eruptions) leading to a classification of the types of volcanoes (red/grey). Some experimental sequences follow which are intended to understand where the form of the volcanoes come from, what the “engine” of an eruption is, and in what way do red and grey volcanoes differ (role of the viscosity of the lava, role of gases), until they get to a functional model. The study of the location of volcanoes enables the establishment of the link with tectonic plates.
Two sequences (about the duration of the eruptions and the interval between two eruptions) enable the introduction to the basic notions of statistics. Lastly, the sequence ends in recalling behaviors to adopt to be protect themselves from volcanic risk.

Detailed summary:

 


Session 1-1: Story of the god Vulcan

duration

45 min

material

For each pupil:
- a photocopy of sheet 1

objectives

- Know that the word “volc ano” comes from the name of the god Vulcan
- Collect the pupils illustrations of volcanoes

skills

- Locate explicit information in a text
- Infer new information (implicit)

main Subject

- Language

Initial question

The teacher asks the pupils, collectively, what mythology is, with the aim of finding a definition for it. The expected answers are of the type “They are stories, legends, that speak about the gods…”. The teacher can guide the research by asking them questions: “What is a legend? When were these stories written? Why were they written?"…
This discussion leads to a collective definition, which can be, for example: Mythology includes ancient legends written by the Greeks and the Romans. They invented these stories to explain their beliefs and certain phenomena which they did not understand.
The teacher then distributes a photocopy of sheet 1, describing the history of the god Vulcan, to each pupil. After a phase of individual reading, during which the teacher ensures that the vocabulary does not pose a problem, the pupils are divided into pairs and must answer the following question: “What do you think angers Vulcan? Identify, in the text, the words which make you think so."

Pooling

The teacher organizes a pooling session during which volcanoes are discussed. He then asks the class to explain the differences between what the Romans knew and what we know today about volcanoes. In the event of difficulty, it can then be asked what they think when volcanoes are mentioned.
Inevitably it is not a matter of using the words written in the text of sheet 1, but for the pupils to express themselves spontaneously.
The answers are collected on the black board (eruption, disaster, destruction, lava, magma, mountain, asleep…), taking care to discuss each word in order to identify their various possible meanings (it is sought to collect the definitions of the pupils, not to establish a definition from the class). The disagreements are pointed out (for example on a poster) and will be resolved later.
The teacher encourages oral debate around words of the same family as Vulcan (volcano, volcanology, vulcanology…).


Grades 3/4 of Kévin Faix's class (the Kremlin-Bicêtre)

Scientific Note
The terms “volcanologist” and “vulcanologist” are often considered, wrongly, synonyms. Whereas the first is a scientist who studies volcanoes, the second is an engineer who manufactures  tires! Vulcanization is a chemical process which consists of injecting rubber with sulfur, to improve the elasticity of the material.

Conclusion

The teacher asks the class to give a progress report about “the questions that can be asked about volcanoes”. Example of questions: "Can a volcano awake? Can we predict an eruption? How is a volcano formed? Are there volcanoes under water?” (etc.)
These questions are noted on a collective poster, as well as in the experiment books.


Grades 3/4 of Magaly Collee and Anne Clémenson's classes (Chambéry)

Extension
This session can be extended by work in visual arts, for example by asking pupils to illustrate the story of Vulcan, with open instructions such as “represent the heat of the volcano”, “represent the anger of the god Vulcan” (work on the materials, the colors, the expressions)…

 


Session 1-2 : What is a volcanic eruption?

duration

1 h 15 min

material

For each pair:
• a photocopy of sheet 2 or sheet 3

objectives

• Know that a volcano is a point on the surface of the globe, or under the oceans, from which lava comes out during an eruption

• Know that there are two categories of volcanic eruptions, effusive eruptions (“red” volcanos), calm and with relatively low danger, and the explosive eruptions (“grey” volcanoes) violent and dangerous

skills

• Locate explicit information in a text
• Infer new information (implicit)

main Subject

Language

vocabulary

Lava, volcano, bomb, ashes, volcanic cloud, crater, explosive, effusive

Initial question

The teacher recalls the poster created during the previous session and announces that in the next session the class will study what a volcano is.

 

Research (documentary study)

The pupils are divided into pairs, each pair receiving, either a photocopy of sheet 2 or sheet 3. Each sheet describes two "historical" eruptions, one is effusive, the other explosive (see below for the meaning of these terms), one in France, the other abroad.
The studied eruptions are:

- Kilauea (Hawaii: an "effusive" eruption, continuous over nearly 30 years… well before the birth of any of the pupils!)
- Mount Pelée (Martinique: an "explosive" deadly eruption, in 1902)

- The piton de la Fournaise (Réunion: an "effusive" eruption takes place almost every year!)
- The Mount Saint Helens (United States, an "explosive" devastating eruption, in 1980)

Initially, the class collectively locates the four volcanoes on world map. Pupils should then highlight the words that describe each volcano's eruption. The vocabulary which poses problem is collectively explained (effusion, precursor, volcanic cloud, lava…). In case of difficulty, the teacher can guide them through questions such as “How did the eruption begin? What came out of the volcano? At what speed did the lava flow? What were the consequences of the eruption?” Finally, the teacher gives the following instruction: “Each one of you must draw one of the two eruptions presented on your sheet. Be as precise as possible: it must be possible to recognize the eruption that you have drawn. Do not hesitate to go over the text in order to find the characteristics of the volcano or the eruption. You will add a legend on your drawing, with all the words which you highlighted in the text."


Gade 4 of Michel Fautrel's class (Livry-Gargan)

Pedagogical note
This instruction is designed to force the pupils to be as precise as possible. Otherwise, the pupils draw what they know (or think they know) about volcanoes, without any connection with what is described in the text, and all the drawings look like each other (although the eruptions described are very different). A title is not added to this drawing on purpose, as it is supposed to be specific enough for the eruption to be recognized.

 

Pooling

The drawings are posted on the black board and are grouped together (drawings of the same eruptions are placed next to each other). To test the fidelity of the drawings to the texts, we start by reading again each text and by writing the visible features of each eruption (what should appear on each drawing) on the blackboard.

Piton de la Fournaise

Mount Saint Helens

Kilauea

Mount Pelée

- Cracks at the top and low altitude
- Fountains of lava (squirts of lava)
- Lava flow (lava liquid)

- Column of smoke
- Ash and vapor explosion
- Ash cloud
- Rock avalanche
- Steep slopes
- Volcanic cloud
- Mudslide

- Cracks
- Very liquid lava
- Fountains of lava
- Lake of lava
- Continuous overflowing of lava
- Gentle slopes

- Fumaroles and black smoke
- Ashes
- Explosions: projection bombs
- Volcanic cloud

Table created in the Grade 5 class of Christine Blaisot (Le Mesnil-Esnard)

The class assesses each drawing by taking into account the shape of the volcano, the presence or absence of liquid lava, ash, flying rocks…
This analysis allows them to group the volcanoes. Two groups can be defined:
- 1st group: weak eruptions, called red or effusive volcanoes (mainly flowing lava): Kilauea and piton de la Fournaise;
- 2nd group: violent eruptions, known as grey or explosive volcanoes (projectiles, ashes, dust, volcanic clouds…): Mount Pelée and Mount Saint Helens.

Then all the elements which had been ignored as they were not visible can be added to the table. (toxic gas, small earthquakes…).

 

Conclusion - written records

A conclusion made by the class is collectively elaborated (dictated by the pupils). An example of a conclusion : There are two main categories of volcanic eruptions, effusive (red volcanos) and explosive (grey volcanos), more dangerous.
This conclusion is then noted in the scientific book, so is the table made during pooling.
The teacher ensures that the various terms used by pupils, or present on the documentary sheets, are collectively defined by the class. Some examples of such definitions:
- Lava = molten rock which comes out to the surface
- Volcano = location on the surface of the Earth from which sometimes lava comes out, during an eruption (at this stage, we do not seek to know the structure of a volcano: cone, magma chamber, etc.)
- Bomb = Rocky projectile (piece of lava) ejected from a volcano during an eruption
- Ash = very fine powder of volcanic rock
- Volcanic cloud = mixture of hot gases, ashes and rocks which move at high speed
- Crater = opening located at the top or on the sides of the volcano, which releases lava and projections.

These definitions are noted in the scientific book.

Multimedia extension
The first multimedia animation created for this project is entitled “Living with risk”. It is a cartoon which tells the story of past natural disasters, and the means that men have found to protect themselves. It can be accessed on the project’s website (in French).

 

 


Session 1-3: L et us classify the volcanoes of the world

duration

30 min

material

For each pupil:
- a photocopy of sheet 4, if possible in colour

For the class:
- an enlarged version (or a video projection) of sheet 4

objectives

- To reconsider the classification of the red/grey volcanoes
- To know that a volcano has a roughly conical shape and that this cone is very spread out (gentle slope) on red volcanos, and steeper and broken on grey volcanoes

skills

- Apply an investigative approach: to know how to observe, to question
- Apply knowledge in different scientific contexts

main Subject

Sciences

Pedagogical note
This session can be seen as a consolidation session, even a formative assessment: the classification established previously is reviewed, and is applied to volcanoes, erupting or not, in order to check if it is well mastered by the pupils. Additionally, this session highlights the link between the shape of a volcano and the type of eruption. This link will be explored in more detail later

 

Initial question

The session begins with a reminder of the previously established classification: there are two types of eruptions: effusive and explosive… or, in other words, there are two types of volcanoes, red and the grey.

Scientific notes
- The classification into two types of volcanoes (red/grey) is simplified to the extreme, but seems preferable for this session and the following ones, because it can easily be interpreted by the pupils, in particular through the experimental activities which will follow this session. A finer classification (five types: Hawaiian, Strombolian, Vulcanian, Pelean, Plinian) is addressed in the cartoon “Volcanoes” which we developed with Universcience for this project.
- Additionally, some volcanoes can evolve in the long term and gradually go from the "red" type to the “grey” type. This can possibly be mentioned to the pupils in order to nuance the classification, but should not be studied specifically.

The teacher asks the pupils: "In your opinion, what does a red volcano look like, and what does a grey volcano look like?"
This time it is about describing the shape of the volcano “at rest” and not the eruption. This discussion is held collectively, the pupils having few clues enabling them to answer precisely. Some clues can be found in the description of their eruptions (see the preceding Session): gentle or steep slopes, decapitated mountain…

 

Research (documentary study)

The pupils are divided into pairs and receive a photocopy of sheet 4 showing photographs of red or grey volcanoes, erupting or not.
Starting from these photographs, they try to rebuild a classification. Can they recognize the reds and the greys?
The two photographs of the volcanoes erupting are easily recognizable (in one, a cloud of ashes and dust… in the other, a lava flow). The shape of the volcanoes can be guessed (steep slope for the first, gentle for the second) and extrapolated to the other photographs.
If they do not manage to establish this link spontaneously, can they find another criterion for classification? (For example: steep slope, gentle slope)

 

Pooling

At the time of pooling, various groups show their classification. It allows them to realize that the morphological features of a volcano “betray” the type of eruption. A red volcano will have a conical form with very gentle slopes, while a grey volcano will have a steeper slopes, and will show the mark of explosions (collapses).
Opposite are the “corrections”, with the name and the type of each volcano. Note that one volcano is presented twice, once erupting and once at rest (Mayon). This repetition makes it possible to ensure that the explosive eruption corresponds to a steep slope.


 

Pedagogical notes
- Enlargements or a video projection of sheet 4, in color, greatly facilitates this pooling
- The photographs of volcanoes can also be compared to the drawings produced by the pupils during the previous session.

 

Conclusion

A volcano has a roughly conical shape. This shape depends on the type of eruption: for the "red" volcanoes, the cone is very spread out and the slope is gentle; for the "grey" volcanoes, the cone is less spread out and the slope is steep; the cone is also more rugged.
Two questions can be asked from this observation:
- Where does this conical shape come from?
- Why are some cones flatter than others?

Scientific Note
The gentle slope of a red volcano is due to very fluid lava, which flows easily, while the steeper slope of a grey volcano is due to more viscous lava, which flows less easily. Viscosity and its influence on the shape of the volcanoes, as well as the origin of the conical shape will be studied in the following session.

 


Session 1-4: The origin of the volcanic cone

duration

1 h 30 min

material

For each group:
- a bent straw or a flexible pipe
- a cylindrical container (cup, yoghurt pot…)…
- a piece of cardboard
- fine semolina
- a drill (to pierce the container)

For each pupil:
- a photocopy of sheet 5

objectives

- To understand the origin of the volcanic cone (accumulation of materials produced during eruptions)

skills

- Handle and experiment, formulate a hypothesis and test it, debate
- Express and use the results of a research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Infer new information (implicit)

main Subject

Sciences

 

Initial question

The teacher reviews the question asked at the end of the previous session: “We have seen that a volcano has a more or less flattened cone shape: how is this cone formed?"
The pupils work individually, and note their ideas in their scientific book.

 

Pooling

The teacher collects the various hypotheses put forth by the pupils. For example:
- the volcano was from a preexisting mountain or from an accumulation of stones carried by the wind;
- the volcanic cone resulted from a deformation of the ground under the effect of a push exerted to the top (confusion with the formation of chain of mountains);
- the volcanic cone was formed gradually, by the accumulation and the cooling of the materials ejected during the eruption.

The teacher encourages the pupils to justify their answers, and asks the rest of the class (is it possible? what do you think? who agrees?).
The third hypothesis is correct, as shown in the rest of this session.

 

Research (documentary study)

Each pupil receives a photocopy of sheet 5, 5, which describes the formation of the Paricutín volcano (1943, Mexico). This text tells how a Mexican farmer saw a volcano being born on his land, initially with some fumaroles, then ejections of ashes and stones. It is one of the only volcanoes in the world whose formation has been followed live.
The pupils read this text and seek clues which enable them to answer the question asked at the beginning of session (“How is the volcanic cone formed?").

 

Pooling

The story of Paricutín shows that the volcanic cone is formed by the accumulation of stones, lava and ashes ejected by the volcano.
The teacher asks the pupils to imagine an experiment to verify that ejected materials form a cone while falling down.
Several possibilities are proposed; the group collectively seeks a material which could be appropriate (it is necessary for it to be solid, but also for it to be able to flow). The pupils propose sand, sugar, semolina (semolina is agreed upon, as there is some in the class)…
In general, the pupils propose two types of experiment:
- din the first, it is enough to release the semolina from a certain height and to observe the shape obtained: it is a cone;
- in the second, it is necessary to make the semolina come out from "below" for better representation of what happens in a real volcano. It is sufficient, for this, to blow into a straw to eject the semolina. This second experiment is described below (the first is not described, but can of course be carried out in class!).

If the pupils do not have ideas, it is sufficient to present the available material to them: very quickly, the second experiment is proposed.

 

Modeling (by group)

The container is pierced in order to introduce the straw. Warning! It is necessary to drill it "on the side, towards the bottom", but not "under", because otherwise the straw will clog.
A hole is made on the card board set on top of it (diameter: 1 cm). The pot is filled to the brim, or almost, with fine semolina. By blowing into the straw, the semolina comes out from the hole on the lid. When falling down on the cardboard, the semolina forms a conical shape (with a “crater" in the middle).


Grade 3-4 of Virginie Ligère's class (Antony)

Pedagogical notes
A video of this experiment is available here.
The teacher ensures that the pupils properly establish the link between the model and the reality such as it was described in the document (sheet 5, formation of the Paricutín): the semolina represents ashes, dust and the rocks ejected by the volcano, the cup represents the chimney of the volcano…

 

Conclusion

The story of the Paricutín volcano and the modeling carried out by the pupils both show that a volcanic cone is formed by the accumulation of materials ejected by the volcano.
This conclusion is written collectively, and is noted in the scientific books.
The modeling carried out with the semolina makes it possible to ask the following questions: “In nature, how are these materials ejected? What “blows”?”.
In addition, the types of volcanoes highlighted previously raises another question: how to explain that some cones are very spread out, while others are not?
These two questions will guide the next sessions which relate to the role of gases dissolved in the magma, and to the viscosity of the latter. The questions are written on a poster so that they can be referred to again later.

 

Extension

For some pupils, the use of semolina in the experiment can be a problem (they think of the liquid lava). You can then propose another experiment, which is very enlightening (and very popular!): to build a chocolate volcano.
The introduction of this experiment is very simple, it only requires asking the pupils which material, that they know well, is liquid when it is hot and becomes solid when it cools. Chocolate is immediately proposed.
The experiment can be carried out collectively, by using a plastic pocket or a bag which is pressed to raise the chocolate "from the bottom” (rather than to make it flow by pouring it from the top). Before making a flow, it is necessary to let the previous flow cool down (1 hour in the fridge). It is completely possible to perform the manipulation by letting the flows cool down at room temperature; it is enough to spread it out over two days.
The viscosity of the chocolate can be made to vary by adding more or less water to it. One chocolate bar is required per flow.


Grade 3-4 of Virginie Ligère's class(Antony)

This experiment does not only allow modeling the formation of a volcano by the accumulation of layers of flows, but also the introduction of the concept of viscosity (see following session). It replicates very well the solidification of lava. On the other hand, it does not explore the role of gases, in contrast to the previous session (where we blew into the straw). This experiment with the chocolate can therfore be added to the first one, but does not replace it. Instead of the chocolate, paraffin wax can also be used.

 


Session 1-5: Shape of the volcano and viscosity of the magma

duration

1 h 30 min

material

For each group:
- the following liquids: water, shampoo, honey
- these same liquids mixed with semolina
- other possible liquids (see the session of the activities)
- a melamine board, possibly pierced for some groups

For some groups (cf. le déroulement de la séance) :
- a stop watch
- a large syringe

objectives

- Understand that the differences between the shape of the red and grey volcanoes is explained by a difference in the viscosity of the lava (red volcanoes produce a lava that is less viscous than the grey volcanoes)
- Know that there are more or less viscous liquids (that is, liquids that flow more or less easily)

skills

- Handle and experiment, formulate a hypothesis and test it, discuss
- Know how to express the results of a research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing

main Subject

Sciences

vocabulary

Viscosity

 

Initial question

The teacher makes a provisional assessment: “We understand the origin of the conical shape of volcano. Among the questions that have been asked, are: “Why are some cones steeper than others?". This question is asked collectively, and gives rise to a discussion in the class. The ideas which most often emerge are:
- The more the volcano emits a great quantity of lava, the steeper its cone.
- The more the lava flows over a long distance, the more the cone is spread out (the less steep it is).

The teacher asks the pupils, collectively, if they can imagine one or more experiments which allow testing these hypotheses. In the event of difficulty, he can guide them in this way:

- 1st assumption: on the basis of the experiment carried out during the previous session, the teacher shows them a cone formed with semolina, and asks them if the cone will be made steeper by adding semolina. He also asks them how to measure this angle (for example, “Chinese hats” can be used). This very simple and very quick experiment can be carried out collectively as a class, or within groups.
- 2nd assumption: the teacher asks them whether they know liquids which flow very easily (such water for example), or with difficulty (such as honey). He then asks them to think about an experiment which could highlight the fact that some liquids flow easily, and others do not. Several experiment are possible (see below).
For the second assumption, the teacher presents several liquids of different viscosities (at least: water, shampoo, honey… to which can be added liquids such as: ketchup, oil, paint, syrup, washing-up liquid, condensed milk…) as well as some of these liquids mixed with semolina. He asks them to classify the liquids according to the ease with which they flow. This classification is noted in the scientific book, and will be compared with the results, at the end of the session.

 

Research (experimentation)

The pupils are divided into small groups. Each group performs an experiment making it possible to test one or the other of the hypotheses.
The first hypothesis gives rise to an experiment that is very quickly carried out, and makes it possible to note that the angle of the cone always remains the same, whatever the quantity of semolina used. The conclusion is then that the slope of the volcano does not depend on the quantity of lava produced.
The second hypothesis can give rise to several different experiments (which can be carried out successively or by groups):


Grade 3/4 of Magaly Collee's and Anne Clémenson's classes (Chambéry)

- In one experiment a little liquid is poured from the top of a slightly tilted plane (30° for example), and the distance covered by this liquid in a given time (5 seconds for example) is measured. This experiment is not always very conclusive, because some liquids spread on the board but do not really flow. Nevertheless, it is systematically proposed by the children and deserves to be tested.


Grade 4 of Kévin Faix's class (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre)

- In a second experiment (which gives better results), a (fixed) quantity of liquid is poured on to a horizontal surface, and the spreading of this liquid on the surface is observed: which one spreads out the most?


Grade 3/4 of Magaly Collee's and Anne Clémenson's classes (Chambéry)

- In a third experiment, finally, the formation of a volcano is modeled by injecting a liquid through a horizontal surface (pierced) at the bottom. It is the equivalent of the experiment in the previous sessions, but replacing the semolina with the liquid. The liquid is “pushed” upwards using a syringe. Depending on the liquid used, a cone that is more or less spread out will be formed. This experiment is undoubtedly the one which gives the best results, and has the advantage of allowing an immediate conclusion, thanks to its resemblance to a true volcano.

 


Grade 4 of Kévin Faix's class (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre)

Pedagogical note
As in any experiment, it is necessary here to vary only one parameter (the nature of the liquid), while all the others are identical, in particular the quantity of the liquid poured. A considerable amount of time will be saved during this session if small “flasks” with the same quantity of the various liquids are prepared in advance for each group.


Scientific note
It is important to take non-porous materials as the surface (horizontal or tilted plane) so as not to allow the liquid to penetrate: it must flow. The same material must be used for the different liquids (variation of only one parameter at any time). A good material: a melamine board (wood covered with a plastic layer).

 

Pooling

Each group appoints a rapporteur who comes to present their experiment as well as the results obtained to the whole class.
- The first experiment (semolina cone) shows that the angle of a heap does not depend on the quantity of semolina. In the same way, it is not the quantity of lava which explains the shape of the volcanic cones
- The experiment with the tilted plane shows that some liquids flow less quickly than others: it is said that they are viscous when they flow slowly. Honey is more viscous than shampoo, which in turn is more viscous than water. By adding semolina to honey or to shampoo, the viscosity is further increased.
- The experiment with the horizontal plane shows that the most viscous liquids are also those which spread out the least. It is noticed that the liquids which do not spread out much form a structure which is higher than those which were spread out.
- The experiment with the horizontal plane and the syringe shows that the more viscous liquids give rise to a steeper cone.

The teacher ensures that a parallel is made with the slopes of the volcano: the explosive volcanoes (grey) produce lava that is more viscous than the effusive volcanoes (red).

 

Conclusion

The class collectively works out a conclusion in the form of a synthesis, for example: lava is said to be viscous when it flows slowly. The red volcanoes emit lava which is less viscous than that of the grey volcanoes. This lava flows more easily, which explains the more “spread out” shape of red volcanoes.

Extension
The extension of the previous session (to produce a chocolate volcano) can just as easily be carried out here, after this session about viscosity. Just ask the pupils if they know of an ingredient which can be more or less viscous according to the temperature (the temperature is a parameter that we were oblivious to in this session , in order to simplify… but can be added without problems; this will make the comparison with lava more "natural“). Chocolate is immediately proposed. Several small volcanoes can be made with chocolates of different levels of viscosity (by changing the temperature and the quantity of water).

 


Session 1-6: The role of gases, construction of a model volcano

duration

2 hours (in 2 times 1 hour)

material

For the class:
- transparent glass
- white vinegar
- washing up liquid
- sodium bicarbonate

For each group:
- to make the volcanic cone

- choice of: earth, papier-mâché…

or the following material:

› 1 kg of white flour
› 500 g of salt
› water
› 4 tablespoons of vegetable oil;
› green dye (or water-based paint)

- to model the eruption

- water
- red dye (or water-based paint)
- 100 ml of vinegar
- 50 g of sodium bicarbonate
- 30 ml of washing up liquid
- salad bowl
- one tablespoon
- one teaspoon
- one glass
- a prop (large dish, paperboard, tray, board…)
- an empty 25 cl bottle
- a funnel

objectives

- Know that a volcano has a chimney and a magma chamber.
- To understand that gas pressure is the principal driver of a volcanic eruption
- Understand that the higher the gas pressure, the more explosive the eruption

skills

- Handle and experiment, formulate a hypothesis and test it, discuss
- Know how to express the results of research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Apply knowledge in different scientific contexts

main Subject

Sciences

vocabulary

Pressure

Initial question

The teacher reviews previous work: "We have shown that the volcanic cone is formed by the accumulation of the material ejected during the eruption (and that the viscosity of the lava explained the more or less pronounced spread of this cone). To work our model, we blew into a straw: it was the air that pushed the semolina out."
“In reality: is air, or other gases, produced by the volcano?"
The class collectively reviews the description of the eruptions of session 1-2, and it is noted that indeed gases are emitted, and come out from the same place as the lava (the crater). This allows us to question the role of these gases: is it possible that these gases "push" the lava to the outside? In order to allow an experimental investigation, we look at more accessible gases and liquids: “Do you know situations where gases are “mixed” with liquids?"
We speak about carbonated drinks. The teacher asks what happens when a bottle of carbonated drink is shaken before being opened. He asks for details: “What overflows? the gas? the liquid? both?"

Pedagogical note
- This experiment is futile (all the children know what will occur)… speaking about it without doing it, is enough.
- For this work, we do not need to look further into the concept of dissolving, nor into that of pressure: the empirical knowledge of the pupils is perfectly sufficient.

The discussion makes it possible to agree on the fact that there are bubbles and that these bubbles, once spread on the table (or clothing…), will wet this table. That means that liquid was ejected: the gas is able to move the liquid upwards
The teacher ensures that all the pupils see the parallel with the volcano: gas is able to push lava outside. A lot of gas is needed to make these tons lava to come out.

 

Research (experimentation)

The teacher announces that there is a way of making much more bubbles with vinegar and sodium bicarbonate. He prepares an experiment with:
- a cup or transparent glass, filled (approximately ¼ full) with vinegar;
- a cup with 1 tablespoon of sodium bicarbonate.

The experiment is carried out collectively (it is more a demonstration than an experiment): when sodium bicarbonate is poured into the glass of vinegar, the pupils observe what happens: strong degassing (effervescence can be heard), formation of large bubbles… After the first test, the pupils are questioned on the type of eruption represented; they speak about effusive eruption then reflect on what could make it explosive. “More gas would be needed”, “more pressure”.
The experiment is then repeated by adding more vinegar, more bicarbonate.


Grade 3/4 of Virginie Ligère (Antony)

Pedagogical note
A video of this experiment is available here. If we took a mustard pot instead of a glass, we can add a lid and note that the lid pops up (excitement of the pupils guaranteed).
This experiment makes it possible to show that to make viscous magma come out a lot of gas is needed, and that this involves more explosive eruptions.

Each pupil writes a report, as well as the conclusion developed in common, in their scientific books: “It is the gas contained in the magma which makes it come out."

Scientific note
The gas produced by this reaction is CO2; the same gas contained in carbonated drinks. It is also one of the main gases produced during volcanic eruptions.

The teacher then asks the pupils to use what they have learned to create a model of a volcano. The pupils work in groups, and draw their model in their scientific book.

 

Constructing a model of the volcano

The various proposals are compared on the white board.
Here is an example of model. The lava will be produced as in the previous experiment, but inside a bottle. A volcanic cone is built around this bottle (either by piling up earth, papier-mâché… or by making a kind of “modeling dough”, as described below).

1- Making the dough for the volcanic cone
1 kg of flour, 500 g of salt, 4 tablespoons of vegetable oil are mixed in a salad bowl. Separately, 30 cl of water, a little dye or paint are mixed to obtain a green chestnut colour. This coloured water is then added to the previous mixture. The whole thing is then mixed by hand, until the paste obtained is no longer sticky. If, after a few minutes, the paste is still too is sticky, a little flour can be added.

Pedagogical note
- The teacher who wishes to save time can prepare this paste in advance. If it is prepared the day before, it will remain flexible the following day (malleability will be closer to the modeling clay than to salt-paste).
- If the cone is made with earth rather than with modeling clay, a little plaster can be mixed with this earth, and moisten it, to make it more solid.


Grade 4 of Michel Fautrel (Livry-Gargan)

2 - Making of the volcanic cone
The bottle is placed on a surface which will allow the model to be transported. The dough is molded around the bottle in order to form a cone which is not too steep (if needed, more dough can used, or first make a paper cone, which is then covered with the dough). Only the bottleneck should be visible. The model is ready: it is necessary to let it dry over night before generating the eruption.

 

The following d ay: the eruption

The lava should first be prepared: the vinegar must be added last.
50 ml of lukewarm water is mixed with 50 g of sodium bicarbonate. Some drops of red dye as well as 30 ml of washing up liquid is added and mixed gently (without making it foam).
Using the funnel, this mixture is poured into the volcano. When all is ready, 100 ml of vinegar is poured into the volcano: the eruption begins!


Grade 3/4 of Kévin Faix(Le Kremlin-Bicêtre)

Pedagogical note
- This session can be enriched and various mixtures compared, thus modeling either effusive or explosive eruptions. To do this, you can exploit two parameters:
 * LThe quantity of washing up liquid (30ml, 60ml, 90 ml): the more the washing up liquid, the more viscous the lava.
 * The quantity of sodium bicarbonate (50g, 100g): the more the bicarbonate, the greater the degassing.
- We can also imagine that one of the volcanoes is closed by a stopper, which will pop because of the pressure of gases (especially if too much sodium bicarbonate was put). With a “very fluid lava”, there is no time to place the stopper. On the other hand, this can be done with more viscous lava (large quantity of washing up liquid). In this case, there is a prior accumulation of pressure which makes the eruption explosive.

 

Written record and conclusion

The pupils draw their model in the scientific book, and explain how it works.
The teacher ensures that the pupils grasps the relationship between the model and reality properly. The collective discussion makes it possible to conclude that the greater the quantity of gas, the more explosive the eruption. If the conclusion of the previous session is added (about the viscosity of the lava), it can be concluded: An eruption is more explosive the more viscous the lava and the more gas it contains.
This conclusion is written collectively, and is noted in the scientific books.

Grade 3/4 of Virginie Ligère (Antony)

Pedagogical note
This session is rich… and long. If there is not enough time to complete the written evidence and the conclusion, that is not an issue; this can be done later during a session which is very short. The diagram of the model which has been produced is then compared to the diagram of a “real” volcano.

Extensions
If possible, study samples of various volcanic rocks. Compare slags and basalts full of cavities (small bubbles contained initially in the magma) with more massive samples (rhyolites, obsidians). The collection of these samples can become the subject of discovery class on the Massif Central for example…

 


Session 1-7: Anatomy of a volcano

duration

45 minutes

material

   

objectives

- Know the anatomy of a volcano: cone, chimney, magma chamber

skills

- Know how to express the results of an experiment, a measurement or research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing

main Subject

Sciences

vocabulary

Magma, magma chamber, chimney

This session is used as an assessment of the structure and the activity of a volcano.

Initial question

The teacher explains that the purpose of the previously produced model was to reproduce an eruption. The class did not seek to represent the interior of the volcano accurately.
Individually, the pupils create a diagram of a volcano, as they imagine it.

Pooling

The teacher compiles the various diagrams on the black board, and asks the pupils to compare them (common points and differences). This comparison enables the highlighting of the elements which must be present in the diagram of a volcano (see below).


Grade 4 of Kévin Faix (Le Kremlin-Bicêtre)

 

The teacher copies the diagram of the model produced during the previous session on the black board and writes, on the side, a volcano, naming its various elements: cone, crater, chimney, magma chamber, magma, lava, ashes…
Once this diagram is finished, the class reviews the steps of an eruption. To make this summary an assessment, the teacher guides the pupils with questions such as:
- Where does the lava come from?
- How does it come out?
- From where does it come out?
- What happens to the lava which has come out?
- How is the volcanic cone formed?
- Etc.

 


Session 1-8: Where are volcanoes locat ed?

duration

1 hour

material

Choice:
- a computer connected to the Internet (1 computer per pair)
- or, for the class: a computer + a video projector
- or, if there is no computer equipment, for each pair, photocopy of sheets 6, 7, and 8, as well as a world map.

objectives

- Know that the earth's crust consists of plates moving against one another, and that the majority of volcanoes are located at the edges of these plates
- Know that some volcanoes are not located on these lines. These volcanoes are called “hot point” volcanoes. They are red volcanoes
- Know that there are also underwater volcanoes (consequence of the operation of the ocean ridges)

skills

- Express and use the results of a research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Know the main physical geographical characteristics; locate them on maps of various scales
- Read and use maps

main Subject

Sciences

Preliminary pedagogical notes
- This session is based on a multimedia animation, produced by La main à la pâte and Universcience, which can be downloaded from the "pupil" section of this website. This session is very similar to session 2-4 relating to the localization of earthquakes. It can be carried out independently (a pair per computer), or collectively, using a video projector.
- If the pupils are in front of the computer, they will need strong coaching (if not, they “play” with multimedia, without really paying attention, and without learning anything).
- If the session is carried out collectively, it is advisable to facilitate it well, to stop often, to ask the pupils to anticipate (“in your opinion, what is going to happen…”) so that they are not passive.
- An alternative is offered (in the form of a documentary study) if the use of multimedia is not possible. The two alternatives are not exclusive.

 

Implementing and conducting the session

Before starting the multimedia animation, the teacher asks the pupils where the volcanoes are located, and collects their answers. The pupils are divided into small groups, ideally into pairs, each group having a computer at their disposal, with the animation on the screen. The interactive animation is made up of several elements making it possible to visualize:


Animation « The Earth »

- the inner layers of the Earth;
- the tectonic plates (in particular, their displacement since Pangea can be followed) ;
- the localization of earthquakes on Earth (at this stage of the project, this part can be skipped, and will be studied in sequence 2) ;
- the location of volcanoes, which they can compare with the line of the tectonic plates.

Pooling and conclusion

After viewing the animation, the pupils share what they have learned:
- The Earth's crust consists of plates moving against each other.
- OThe majority of volcanoes are found at the edges of these plates: they are grey or red volcanoes.
- However, there also exist volcanoes which are not located on these lines. These volcanoes are called “hot point” volcanoes. They are red volcanoes.
- There also exist underwater volcanoes (consequences of the operation of the oceanic ridges). They are red volcanoes.

Alternative

If this multimedia animation cannot be used in class due to lack of equipment, a similar session can be carried out using maps (sheet 6, sheet 7, sheet 8) as well as a world map. The study of sheet 6 shows that the volcanoes are not distributed everywhere: the majority are on “lines”. While reflecting the significance of these lines, graph 2 (sheet 7, which shows the tectonic plates) is introduced… and it can be noted that these lines correspond to the edges between the tectonic plates.
The pupils are then asked to trace the outlines of South America on a world map, then to place this copy on a world map while trying to join South America to Africa. The pupils notice that the two “fit” and formulate a hypothesis explain this. A possible explanation is that these plates move, and that at some point. in time the two continents were only one. The same thing can be done with Arabia and Africa to obtain an identical report and hypotheses. The teacher then introduces sheet 8, which explains continental drift, and proposes to arrange in order the various stages since Pangea. For convenience, one can start by coloring the continents (in order to better follow them).


The answer key is given below (quaternary = today):

The session ends in a collective discussion during which the teacher explains the link between the movements of the plates and volcanism.

 


Session 1-9: When can it be said that a volcano is extinct?

duration

1 hour

material

For each pair
- photocopy of sheet 9

objectives

A volcano can be active or not. Beyond 10 000 years without eruption, it is said that the volcano is inactive or extinct.

skills

- Organization and data management:
 * read, interpret and construct some simple representations: tables, graphs
 * know how to organize numerical or geometrical information, to justify and to assess the likelihood of a result

main Subject

Mathematics

 

Initial question

The class, has until now, wondered about the various types of volcanic eruptions, as well as about the distribution of the volcanoes. But not all volcanoes are active. Several types of questions are possible:
- Is a volcano always in eruption?
- How long is it between eruptions?
- It is sometimes said that some volcanoes are extinct, or dormant: what does that mean?
- Can the volcanoes of Auvergne erupt?

The pupils responses are noted in he table. Some think that an "extinct" volcano can erupt again; others that an extinct volcano is a volcano which was active but that this activity is definitively finished; others still think that it cannot be known.
The duration which must separate various eruptions is also the subject of a disagreement (1 year, 1 century, 1 000 years, “it depends on the volcano »…).

 

Research (documentary study)

The pupils are divided into pairs and receive a photocopy of sheet 9. This document contains the following data:
- Dates of eruption of the Vesuvius, in Italy, in ancient times.
- Dates of the last eruptions of Mount Pelée, in Martinique (see documentary study of Session 1-2).
- Date of the last eruptions of the Chaîne des Puys, in Auvergne.

The instruction given in the document guides them step by step in the analysis of these data.

Pedagogical notes
- The calculation of the time intervals can be problematic, in particular with some "negative" dates. This difficulty can be solved using a timeline (which can distributed to the pupils or be made by them). After having placed the dates on the timeline, it can be observed that, to calculate the difference between the year - 1660 and year +79, it is initially necessary to calculate the difference between -1660 and 0 (1660 years), and between 0 and 79 (79 years). The total differene is the sum of both: 1660 + 79 = 1739 years. One proceeds in the same way for the difference between - 4700 and today.
- The pupils can also be asked to calculate approximate values, because what is of interest here are the orders of magnitude.
- Other data can also be studied, for example the dates of the eruptions of Etna between ancient times and the 17th century: 252, 812, 1329, 1536, 1610 and 1614. That gives differences of 560, 517, 207, 74 and 4 years.


Grade 4 of Michel Fautrel (Livry-Gargan)

 

Pooling

The teacher collects the results of the pupils, and makes the class discuss them. The first question shows that the interval separating two successive eruptions from Vesuvius can go up to 8 000 years. This means that, even if a volcano did not erupt for centuries or millennia, it can still erupt again.
The second question shows that Mount Pelée has not erupted for a little more than 80 years: it is almost certain that it will erupt again (see previous result). It is also the reason why it is under intense monitoring.
The third question shows that the last eruption noted in the Chaîne des Puys goes back to nearly 7 000 years. Can they erupt again? It is possible (but definitely less certain than for Mount Pelée).
The teacher then explains that, for volcanologists, a volcano is regarded as extinct (i.e. that it will no longer erupt) if its last eruption dates back more than 10 000 years. This criterion is arbitrary (one could have taken 50 000 or 200 000 years!), but practical because compatible with what is known of the last eruptions: it is very rare that two successive eruptions of a volcano are spaced by more than 10 000 years.
In contrast, a volcano which is not extinct is known as “active”. It can then be in eruption or “asleep" (i.e. between two eruptions).
The teacher asks the pupils to determine if the volcanoes of the Chaîne des Puys, in Auvergne, can be regarded as extinct or not. The answer is that they are asleep… which means that they could, perhaps, erupt again.

Scientific note
We did not choose to study “a” volcano from Auvergne in particular, but a chain (Chaîne des Puys). The reason is that, in this area, there are often "mono-eruptive" volcanoes: they only erupt once. But the area remains active: the next eruption takes place a few kilometers further and forms a new volcano.

 

Conclusion and written records

The class writes a collective conclusion, which could look like: A volcano is considered to be extinct if it has not had an eruption for the past 10 000 years. If not, it is said that it is asleep… which means that it can erupt again.

Extension
This session can be extended with a documentary research: What volcanoes are in France? Are they extinct (as in the Massif du Cantal or Mount-Gilds on the mainland, or the Piton des Neiges on the Réunion) or active (Chaîne des Puys, and many examples in Martinique, Guadalupe and Reunion)?

 


Session 1-10 : H ow long does an eruption last?

duration

1 hour

material

For each pair:
- a photocopy of sheet 10

objectives

Know that an eruption can last a few hours to several years

skills

- Organization and data management:
 * read, interpret and construct some simple representations: tables, graphs
 * know how to organize numerical or geometrical information, to justify and to assess the likelihood of a result

main Subject

Mathematics

vocabulary

Variability, average

Pedagogical note
This session targets pupils in grade 4, even in Junior High school, and is an introduction (very basic) to the “statistical way of thinking in a scientific view of the world” [This is the subject of a converging theme of the Jr High. Here, for primary school, it is limited to a “small steps” approach]. This view is inseparable from the experimental approach and contributes to the analysis and summary of data from observation.
Very often, children as well as adults have the same instinct when they are confronted with a large amount of data which has to summarized: they calculate a mean value. This average is in general very relevant… but not always. In particular, when the data is very "dispersed", the mean value does not mean much. It is the case here: the mean value of the duration of the volcanic eruptions does not make much sense.
The goal of this session is to see this, and to find an alternative way to answer the question "How long does a volcanic eruption last?” It will be seen that a relevant way to answer it (other that “it depends”!) is: half of the eruptions last less than XXX days. This concept, in statistics, is called the median. This concept is approached, without however naming it nor explaining how it is calculated (fortunately, there is a very simple way to define it, without calculation!).

Initial question

The teacher asks the pupils how long a volcanic eruption lasts. The pupils are invited to read the documents studied in session 1.2 again (sheet 2 and sheet 3). Eruptions of varied durations are found: 9 hours, 26 days, 2 months… and 29 years (this last duration, 29 years, is only indicative: the eruption is still not finished!).

Research (documentary study)

The pupils are divided into pairs and receive a photocopy of sheet 10, which lists the eruptions of various volcanoes (and, for some volcanoes, several different eruptions in order to see the variation between volcanoes… but also, for the same volcano, between eruptions).
The instruction, although very simple (“How long does an eruption last?”) is not without difficulty. The point of this instruction lies especially in the fact that the pupils must seek how to answer. There are several possible strategies:
- « it depends on the volcanoes » ;
- « it depends on the volcanoes and the eruptions » ;
- « the average duration of an eruption is … » (calculation of the mean) ;
- « an eruption can last between … and … days » ;
- etc.

 

Pooling

The teacher collects the answers of the pupils on the black board. Some perhaps thought of calculating the mean: in this case, the teacher asks why they chose this calculation, and what it means.
He invites the pupils to calculate the mean duration of an eruption, which requires, initially, converting the durations into the same unit. For example, in days. This conversion can be made collectively to save time.
The calculation gives a mean duration of 493 days.
The teacher asks: “How many eruptions have a duration which is close to this mean value?” Only one… all the others are very far from it (by a factor 2, 10, 100 or more!).

Scientific notes
- The calculation of a mean value is very sensitive to the extreme values. Here, the duration of the Kilauea eruption, 29 years, or approximately 10 585 days, completely “pulls” the mean of the 25 data upwards.
- It will be also noted that an extreme value influences the mean all the more when there are few data: generally, it is always preferable to specify how many data the mean was calculated from.
- When the mean is not a value around which many data of the series are, this mean is not a relevant indicator to describe the series. It is preferable to calculate another measure, such as the median, for example. It is the purpose of the following activity.
- The mean, like the median, does not account for the extent of the variability of the data available. It is thus advisable to accompany the mean or the median by an indicator which accounts for variability: there are many choices which can be made to describe a series of numbers, but it is important to give a measurement of “central trend” (median or mean for example) as well as an indicator of variability. The simplest way of speaking about variability consists in giving the smallest and the greatest actual value, and their difference (called range of the series).

The teacher ensures that all the pupils are aware of how little “use” this mean value is. He then asks them how the question can be answered.
If no pupil thinks of answering “we could say that half of the eruptions lasts less than XXX days”, the teacher introduces this idea. He or she can say, for example: “Could the eruptions be distributed into two equal groups?"

Research (determination of the median)

To find out the duration which separates eruptions into two groups (half of the eruptions are shorter, the other half are longer), eruptions must first be arranged by their duration (from the shortest to the longest).
The median value is the one which is in the middle of the table. We find: 17 days.

Pooling

The teacher, after collecting the results of the pupils, discusses with them the meaning of this value. That means that half of the studied eruptions are longer than 17 days and the other half are shorter. This information, even if it remains vague, nevertheless makes more sense than the mean value for this type of data.

Pedagogical notes
- Generally, the duration of a volcanic eruption varies from a few hours to a few days.
- Here it is not sought to mathematically define the median (what is not part of the program), but simply to approach this concept intuitively.
- It is preferable not to try to represent the data graphically, because such a graph would suppose logarithmic scales (unless all the data is packed onto one side of the graph, for only one point at the other end), because of the great dispersion in the durations. Such a form of representation is difficult to interpret by pupils of that level. The table is already sufficient.

Conclusion

The conclusion of this session is two fold:
- when there is a lot of data, it is not always possible to answer with a single number. Sometimes, the mean is a good indication, sometimes it is not.
- the duration of a volcanic eruption is variable. An eruption can last a few hours, a few days, a few months… or even several years.

Extension

This session can be extended by a more systematic exploration of the concepts of mean and median through the study of various data (in all the cases, it is necessary to have the greatest possible amount of data, at least several dozens):

  • Cases where the mean and the median are virtually identical:
    - Measure the distance covered in 10 natural steps by various pupils.
    - Ask the pupils to cut a string of "approximately" 20 cm after observing a 20 cm ruler, then to measure the lengths obtained.
  • Cases where the mean and the median should be different:
    - Measure the time taken by pupils to complete a sudoku grid.
    - Measure the waiting time for a bus, a subway train…

 


Session 1-11: How to be protected from the volcanic risk?

duration

1 hour

material

Documents (not provided: free research) or Internet connection

objectives

- It is possible to predict volcanic eruptions and to prepare the populations
- In the event of an eruption, it is necessary to evacuate the zone at risk

skills

To carry out the research independently in documents (books, multimedia products)

main Subject

Language

Pedagogical note
To save time, it is preferable that the teacher has planned to borrow books, magazines or DVD’s from the library.

Initial question

The teacher reviews all that was seen previously, in particular the consequences of the eruptions on the population.
He asks the pupils how to be protected from this risk. The collective discussion enables the identification of three quite different areas:
- Can we predict eruptions?
- Can we prevent them, contain them or channel them?
- If an eruption takes place, how to be protected?

Some examples of answers of pupils: “it is necessary to avoid living close to volcanoes”, “it is necessary to involve the population”, “it is necessary to install sirens”, “it is necessary to build dams to stop the lava »… The teacher asks them how to check that these proposals are correct, and the class agrees on the need to research in documents.

Documentary research

The class is divided into several groups, each one having to explore different areas of response by a document research: books, Internet, videos…
During the work on predicting eruptions, information will be sought about volcanic observatories: Who works there? To observe what? Where are these observatories?
It is possible to predict volcanic eruptions, and thus to prepare the populations and to evacuate them if necessary. Scientists take turns 24h/24 in volcanic observatories, and record the vibrations of the ground (an eruption is sometimes preceded by small earth tremors), the flow and the temperature of the fumaroles (which can change before an eruption), the geometry of the volcano (the walls swell by a few millimeters to a few centimeters before an eruption), degassing, etc. It is sometimes possible to divert the flows (using dikes or bombing), to slow them down (by flooding) and thus to facilitate the evacuation of the population. Very good examples can be found in some villages around Mount Etna…
The third area relates to the plans for civil protection (protection of the populations from volcanic risk). Many examples of PPMS [particular safety implementation plan] of schools in seismic areas are available online on the site . For example, that of schools of the French Antilles (in French).
Finally, one of the essential aspects of protection is the information to the population, they must know when to evacuate, where to go, when to return…

Pooling and conclusion

The results of the various documentary research are shared and summarized in the form of one or more posters.


Grades 2/3 of Magaly Collee and Anne Clémenson(Chambéry)

 

The teacher ensures that the key messages are well understood: "It is possible to predict volcanic eruptions and to prepare the populations. In the event of an eruption, it is necessary to evacuate the zone at risk."
This can constitute a conclusion to be noted in the scientific book.

Experimental extension

This session can be prolonged and enriched by an experiment which is very simple to carry out, and which makes it possible to note that the imminent arrival of a volcanic eruption can be predicted:
- Insert a straw into a balloon and cover the balloon with a small pile of sand.
- Blow into the straw to send air into the balloon, then let the air out. When the balloon inflates, the pile of sand becomes deformed and cracks appear on its surface.

This experiment illustrates the fact that magma, while rising and filling the magma chamber, slightly deforms the walls of the volcano. This deformation can be measured, and can be used to anticipate an eruption.

Extension: production of writing

This work on volcanoes can be communicated externally (other classes, families…), in various ways:
- Prepare a slide show about volcanoes, which can be shown, and discussed, with other classes.
- Write articles in the school newspaper. In addition, besides the scientific phenomena and the preventive aspects, it is possible to address some more entertaining topics, for example, food recipes (make a chocolate volcano).
- Organize a “volcano forum” in the form of experimental workshops, in which pupils from the class guide other pupils, or parents (“open” day), in the understanding of some of the concepts studied previously.

 


Session 1-12 : M ultimedia assessment

duration

45 min

material

Computer room

objectives

- Understand how changing certain parameters (viscosity of the lava, pressure of gases) enable the production of volcanic eruptions which are more or less effusive or explosive
- Know some examples of volcanoes throughout the world

skills

- Read a digital document
- Express the results of research using scientific vocabulary verbally or in writing

main Subject

Sciences

 

Initial question

This session is based on the following multimedia animation, produced by La main à la pâte and Universcience :


Animation « Volcanoes »

Set up and progress of the session

The pupils are divided into small groups, ideally in pairs, each group having a computer at its disposal. The interactive animation takes place in several stages:
- Initially, the pupil can vary two parameters (viscosity of the lava and quantity of dissolved gas), and see to which type of volcano that corresponds to.
- Then, the pupil can trigger and follow the eruption of this volcano, and visualize the damage caused.

At each stage, information is given on the dangerous nature of this type of volcano, the preventive attitudes and the required behaviors in the event of eruption.

Pooling and conclusion

After having used animations, the class reviews what was seen throughout this session and produces a summary poster about the types of volcanoes, their forms, their location, their eruptions, and the means of protection against them. The drafting of this poster also makes it possible to review what was made during the first session (what is known, what is thought to be known… all the words which we think of when we talk about volcanoes), and hence to make a final assessment in the format: "What was learnt? “Are there any outstanding questions?…. »

Multimedia extension

The last multimedia animation created for this project is a quiz, with some questions that deal with volcanic eruptions.

 

 

 

 

Partenaires du projet

Fondation La main à la pâte ESA CASDEN Universcience Prévention 2000 AFPCN Editions Le Pommier