Sequence 3: Tsunamis

The following translation is graciously provided by ISTIC.

This short sequence (We advise to start with the study of earthquakes (all or part of session 2), before studying tsunamis) starts with a documentary study allowing a definition of a tsunami. Several experimental sequences and a multimedia animation follow. They enable the understanding of the different mechanisms which give rise to waves and why a tsunami slows down and grows in amplitude when approaching the coast. The class then studies the location of tsunamis to know the zones at the risk (in particular on the French coast) and the behaviors to be taken.

Detailed summary:

 


Session 3-1: What is a tsunami?

duration

1 hour

material

For each pupil:
- a photocopy of sheet 34
- a photocopy of sheet 35
- a world map

For the class:
- (optional): a video projector

objectives

- A tsunami is a series of tall waves which break onto the coasts
- A tsunami causes a lot of damage close to the coasts

skills

- Know the main physical geographical features, spot them on maps of different scales.
- Read and use maps
- Practice an approach of investigation: know how to observe, question
- Express and use the results of research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Locate explicit information in a text
- Infer new information (implicit).

main Subject

Geography

vocabulary

Flood, tidal wave, tsunami, to break, to surge

Triggering situation

The teacher distributes a photocopy of sheet 34 which shows two satellite images, before and after the arrival of the tsunami in Indonesia in 2004, to each pupil.
If there is a video projector, this card can be projected in color ( The documentary sheets are available in colour here). The pupils must individually describe what they see and then describe what could have occurred.

Pedagogical notes
- The SERTI site offers many high quality documents, the cartographies of the satellite SPOT, and relating to many natural disasters (reference maps, maps of impacts...): http://sertit.u-strasbg.fr/ (click on “Rapid Mapping Service”)
- Another possible triggering situation (closer in time than the 2004 tsunami), is the tsunami which has occurred in Japan in March 2011. A very beautiful animation, on this site, enables the comparison of the before and after images (move the cursor from left to right to see the evolution): http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/03/13/world/asia/satellite-photos-japan-before-and-after-tsunami.html

Pooling

The teacher collects the responses of pupils in a table. He ensures that each one explains the meaning of the vocabulary that they use: flood, tidal wave, tsunami.


Grade 4 of Anne-Marie Lebrun(Bourg-la-Reine)

The teacher asks some questions to make the pupils express themselves on an early explanation of the phenomenon: What's this? How could the sea rise?
Some pupils have had experiences of tides and can think that it is a "normal" daily phenomenon.
The affected areas are shown below.


Pedagogical note
Because of the media coverage of the tsunami of March 2011 (Japan), the pupils have acquired a specific vocabulary (tsunami, magnitude, epicentre)... but do not understand their meaning. At this stage, they very often confuse a tsunami and a storm.

 

Research (documentary study)

The teacher distributes a second document (sheet 35), which consists of a testimony and an article reporting the arrival of the tsunami which struck Asia on the 26th December 2004, and its consequences.
The work initially consists of a free reading of the text, then the pupils are invited to highlight the difficult words.

Pedagogical note
The tsunami of 2004 was particularly deadly. Many testimonies (texts, photographs and videos) are available on the Internet. A selection of these videos are online here.

Pooling and conclusion

The teacher asks some pupils to comment on their reading of this document. What have they learned? Are there words which they did not understand?
What happened exactly?
He then hosts a collective discussion aimed at characterizing the phenomenon described. The teacher ensures that the following points are mentioned:
- A tsunami originates in a specific location, but can have effects on a large scale and touch very distant coasts.
- Offshore, a tsunami is not noticeable (this aspect will be reviewed in session 3-4).
- LA tsunami propagates very quickly, which makes it very difficult to alert the population (the speed of propagation will be studied in session 3-3, we will not go into detail here).

The class discusses the devastating effects of the tsunami, and writes a definition of this phenomenon. An example of definition can be: A tsunami is a series of high waves which break onto coasts. A tsunami causes great damage along the coast: floods, destruction, casualties...
The teacher then encourages the pupils to express the questions which they have in connection with tsunamis (example of questions: what is the difference between a tsunami and a tidal wave? in which direction does the wave move? why does the wave slow down when approaching the coast? etc). These questions are noted on a poster on which the answers will progressively be proposed during the sessions that follow.
If the question of the origin of the tsunamis was not asked, the teacher asks it: how can such waves be formed?


Grade 3/4/5 of Marc Rudeau (Serres-sur-Arget)

Scientific notes
-
Tsunami or tidal wave? The term “tidal wave” is no longer used by scientists today, because it is too vague: it used to refer, not only to floods due to very strong tides, but also to storms or other weather phenomena. The term tsunami refers to a wave (known as “of significance”… which has a long wavelength, see notes below) which is almost invisible offshore but becomes higher and breaks on the coast, causing a lot of damage. The causes of a tsunami are generally an underwater earthquake or a major land slide (created, for example, by the collapse of part of a volcano which falls into the ocean, during an eruption).
- Tsunami or storm? What basically distinguishes a tsunami from a large swell (created during a storm… or on a surf spot), is the wavelength… i.e. the distance between two peaks or two troughs of the wave. You can also talk about the period of the wave (time between the arrival of two peaks or two troughs).
- A very large swell has a period of approximately 10 seconds or, in other words, a wavelength of a few tens of meters (100 meters for a storm). The surge of this wave carries a “small” amount of water. This water thus penetrates a distance roughly equal to its wavelength on the ground (if the ground is flat)… a few tens of meters.
- A tsunami has a 20 minute period, or a wavelength of 10 km. The quantity of water contained in the wave is thus gigantic. Nothing can stop this water when it breaks. It will penetrate over a distance of several kilometers on the ground.

Multimedia extension
The first multimedia animation created for this project is entitled “Living with risk”. It is a cartoon telling the history of past natural disasters, and the means by which men protected themselves.

 


 


Session 3-2: How to create a wave?

duration

1 hour

material

For each group:
- water
- mops
- a basin or an aquarium (as wide as possible)
- small objects (table tennis balls for example)
For the class:
- a silicone mould (or a large aluminium food tray)

objectives

- A tsunami can be caused by an earthquake, a volcanic eruption or a large landslide into the sea
- A tsunami is not an isolated wave, but a set of waves

skills

- Handle, experiment, formulate a hypothesis and test, debate
- Express and use the results of research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Test several possible solutions

main Subject

Sciences

Scientific notes
-
To create a tsunami, a disturbance with dimension comparable to the depth of water is needed. In relation to the dimensions of the ocean, it should be a disturbance of the order of one kilometer. An undersea earthquake of magnitude > 6.5 creates a vertical deformation several tens of cm (even several meters)… extended over a distance of several kilometers: this dimension being comparable, even higher, than the depth of the ocean, this causes a tsunami. Major land movements (underwater, or following a volcanic eruption) can have the same effect.
- It is difficult to model a tsunami with precision using small experimental devices. Admittedly (see above), the disturbance must be of the same order of magnitude as the depth… But to throw a stone into an aquarium is not enough. A tsunami is a massive wave which moves the whole of the liquid, and not only its surface. To create a tsunami in an aquarium, it is necessary that the container be long enough (a few meters) to make it possible for to generate a massive wave. A tray of a few tens of centimeters does not create a tsunami... but only a "surface" wave, similar to the swell. It is not a problem in this session … but it limits the relevance of the analogies which can be made (see, in particular, the two following sessions).

Initial question

The teacher points out the questioning resulting from the previous session and explains that before understanding how to create a tsunami, we should try to understand how to create a wave.
This question is very easy and can quickly be dealt with by the whole class, the pupils being accustomed to creating waves (swimming pool, bath…). Several mechanisms can be mentioned, such as for example:
- Drop an object into water
- Remove an object out of water
- Make movements in water
- Blow on the surface of water
- Shake the container...

Research (experimentation)

The pupils, divided into groups, carry out some experiments to create waves, according to mechanisms identified above.
If possible, it is preferable to carry out these experiments outside (water splash…).
In order to make the experiment more interesting, the pupils can be asked to find, for each mechanism, a means of measuring the speed of the waves, or a means of creating, several times in a row, identical waves. The pupils must also observe the shape of the waves created. To encourage this, they can be asked, beforehand, to draw the waves which they will obtain (and to compare these drawings with those obtained after the manipulations).
- Drop an object into water:
* Manipulate the mass of the object or the drop height (it is preferable “to release rather” than “to launch” the object, in order not to have another parameter which is difficult to control to take into account: the strength with which it was launched).
* Concentric Waves.
- Remove an object from water (a ball for example):
* Ditto.
- Make movements in water:
* Manipulate the size of the moving object, the amplitude and the speed of the movements.
* "Linear waves" can be obtained
- Blow on the surface of the water:
* Manipulate the “strength” of the breath (several people can blow).
* Warning! Do not put an electrical appliance (hair drier, ventilator…) in contact: with water, it is dangerous!
* "Linear waves" can be obtained if everyone blows in the same direction.
- Shake the container:
* Manipulate the number of jolts, their amplitude, their direction, etc.
* "Linear waves" which are very easy to follow can be obtained by tilting the container then putting it down (it is ideal to measure speeds).


 
Grade 4 of Anne-Marie Lebrun (Bourg-la-Reine)

Pedagogical note
Such an activity can easily encourage the pupils to be distracted, especially if the work seems insignificant. Hence the interest of before-after drawings (which require them to observe) and the measurement of the speed (which obliges them to, among other things, not make too big waves, otherwise they will no longer see anything).

Pooling

The pooling allows pupils to link these experiments to waves that can be observed in nature:
- The first observation is that we never create ONE wave… but several.

The role of the wind is mentioned as the cause of waves in large areas (lakes, seas, oceans).
- The experiment with dropping an object shows that the larger the object, the higher the waves created are.
- LThe teacher makes brief summary of what has been seen so far: “We saw that waves could be created by falling objects, the movement of air, or movements in the water. According to you, what can create a tsunami?"
The objective is to note that two phenomena can be at the origin: the fall of a body (very massive, like a piece of mountain, following a landslide or a volcanic eruption) or a violent displacement of rocks (underwater earthquake, modifying the ocean floor). The idea that the earthquake is a precursor to a tsunami emerges without difficulty, because of the documentary study carried out during the previous session. On the other hand, we do not know yet how an earthquake can cause a tsunami.
The experiment below makes it possible to model the phenomenon.

Scientific note
The impact of a meteorite, even if it is far from probable, can also cause a large tsunami. The impact which took place 65 million years ago in Mexico (Yucatan) created a mega-tsunami which flooded all of North America. The North-American dinosaurs died by drowning!

Pedagogical note
It is possible that some pupils cannot differentiate between a "normal" wave (created by the wind on the sea) and a tsunami (created by a landslide or an earthquake), or that they are not convinced of the part played by the wind on the oceans. The teacher can then bring back several weather bulletins. It is noted that each time the sea is agitated, there are violent winds offshore.

Research (experimentation)

To model the formation of a tsunami following an underwater earthquake (which modifies the geometry of the ocean floor), it is necessary to use a container for which the shape can be modified. A silicone cake pan (or an aluminium food tray) is perfect for that.
The class carries out the experiment collectively. After pouring water in the mould (and having waited until the water is still) a pupil delivers a small blow to the lower part (for that, place the container on a pierced table, or between two tables).The bottom becomes deformed, generating a wave.

Conclusion

A conclusion is written collectively and noted in the scientific notebooks. Example of conclusion: When the seabed is modified (by an underwater earthquake) or when a great mass falls in the ocean (at the time of a volcanic eruption or a landslide), a tsunami can be created.

 


Session 3-3: Relation entre la vitesse d’une vague and la profondeur de l’eau

duration

2 hours

material

For each group:
- water
- a rectangular container (as large and broad as possible; minimum height: 10 cm)
- a stop watch/p>

For the class:
- computer connected to the internet, or photocopies of sheet 36

objectives

- The greater the depth, the faster the waves spread
- A tsunami advances very quickly offshore (approximately 900 km/h) and slows down on approaching the coasts (30-40 km/h)

skills


- Handle, experiment, formulate a hypothesis and test, debate
- Express and use the results of a measurement or research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing
- Test several possible solutions
- Read, interpret and build some simple representations: tables, graphs
- Know how to organize numerical information, justify and assess the likelihood of an outcome

main Subject

Sciences

Initial question

The teacher asks the class to review the testimonies studied during session 3-1, by focusing on the speed of the waves.
At what speed were the waves travelling?
The pupils highlight a contradiction: the first testimony seems to say that the waves broke on the coast at 40 km/h, while the article speaks of a much greater speed (800 km/h: the speed of a plane!) offshore.

Pooling

The teacher draws a diagram on the black board, like that on following page, on which he writes the speeds mentioned above.
The teacher then collectively asks the pupils why these waves slowed down. Two assumptions emerge in general:
- depth (“while arriving close to the coast, there is less water, then the wave is obstructed and slows down”);
- a loss of momentum (“when one moves away from the epicentre, the wave loses its momentum and slows down”).

The pupils must then find a means of testing these two hypotheses. For the first one, it is a question of designing an experiment which makes it possible to see whether the depth of the water plays a part in the speed of propagation of the waves. For the second, it would be necessary, for example, to look at the evolution the speed of a tsunami when it moves away from the epicentre, but while going offshore rather than towards the coast (we come back to it at the end of the session).



Research (experimentation)

The pupils are divided by groups and test the role of depth.
A possible experiment consists in taking a large flat container in which a little water is poured (a few millimetres).
Waves are created and their speed is measured. To do this, just follow and measure the time it takes to make a few trips (always the same number), because this wave will be reflected on the walls.
This experiment is repeated with 0.5 cm of water, then with 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm, etc.

Scientific notes
- Preferably use a rectangular container (pan or something similar and deeper if possible), first tilt the container then put it back down: a linear wave, which is easy to follow and measure, is thus generated in this container. With a circular wave, it is much more difficult.
- UA video of this experiment is available here.

Several measurements are necessary for each depth (in order to avoid possible errors). It can be useful to prepare a table in advance, that the pupils will just have to fill, in order to save time.

Depth

Journey time

Average of the journey time

0,5 cm

Measure 1

 

Measure 2

 

Measure 3

 

1 cm

Measure 1

 

Measure 2

 

Measure 3

 

...

 

The teacher asks the pupils to write these measurements on a chart, and distributes graph paper. The class collectively discusses the choice of axes and scales. One can either place all the points on the graph, or to decide to place only one value for each depth. In this case, the teacher asks which value to place and, if the pupils do not know, proposes to calculate the mean value of the measurements, and to place only the mean on the graph.


 
Grade 4 of Anne-Marie Lebrun (Bourg-la-Reine)

Pedagogical note
This part of the session (calculation of the averages, chart) is more akin to a mathematical work. You can go even further in this direction and calculate speed, in km/h, of the produced waves (allow ½ hour more in the duration of the sequence). This calculation is difficult, even for a class of grade 5. A way to get there is to:
1/ calculate the distance covered in 1 second (in cm)
2/ convert this distance into km (which gives us a speed in km/s)
3/ multiply by 3 600 to obtain the speed in km/h

The more the depth increases, the more the travel time decreases, which means that the speed increases.

Pooling

Each group names a representative who comes to present the results of their experiment. The report is: the greater the depth of the water, the faster the waves spread.

Research (documentary study)

The second hypothesis mentioned above (a tsunami slows down because it “loses its momentum”) is easy to refute. You can do this by studying the spread of a tsunami on a large scale, either by viewing a video, or by using sheet 36, which shows the progression of a tsunami throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
This activity can be carried out collectively or in groups.
In both cases (video or document), it can be noted that a tsunami does not slow down offshore… it slows down only when it approaches the coast. It is therefore the depth that plays a role, and not the distance from the epicenter

Conclusion

A tsunami spreads very quickly offshore and slows down when approaching the coast because the depth decreases.

Scientific notes
- The fact that the speed of a wave depends on the depth is not specific to tsunamis. It is the case for any wave, provided that the depth is small compared to the wavelength of the wave. For a tsunami (wavelength: 10 km or more), it is always the case, even offshore. For a wave of "normal" swell (wavelength: a few meters or tens of meters), this phenomenon appears only when very close to the coast, when the depth is very low.
- The deceleration of a tsunami when approaching the coast involves a reduction in its wavelength, which goes from a few hundred kilometers, offshore, to a few tens of kilometers, near the coast. This factor of 10 or more, has a consequence on the wave height: the height increases in proportion. A tsunami offshore, is a mere 1 metre high wave... but this wave can easily measure 10 meters onshore!
- In spite of the reduction in the speed of the tsunami when it approaches the coast, the period of the wave remains constant. Approximately twenty minutes separate two successive waves.

 


Session 3-4: M ultimedia assessment

duration

1 hour

material

- Computer room
- (optional): experimental alternative
* 1 large aquarium
* 1 digital video camera

objectives

- A tsunami increases in height when it approaches a coast (as the depth decreases, the height of the wave increases)
- Sometimes (but not always), the arrival of the tsunami is preceded by a phase of withdrawal of the sea. Such a withdrawal must be interpreted as a sign of danger

skills

- Read a digital document
- Express and use the results of research using scientific vocabulary verbally and in writing

main Subject

Sciences

This session is based on a multimedia animation, produced by La main à la pâte and Universcience, which can be downloaded from the “pupil” section here. You can also carry out this study in the form of an experimental sequence, as long as there is the necessary equipment (see the alternative suggested at the end of the session).

Foreword

The teacher requires the class to review one of the testimonies read in session 3-1, in particular the sentence about the fishermen offshore: those who were at sea, far from the coast, noticed nothing. He explains to the pupils (or asks them to research) the etymology of the word “tsunami”. This name comes from two Japanese words: “wave” and “port”. A tsunami indicates a group of waves which hit the port but which cannot be seen offshore.
The teacher requires an explanation of this phenomenon. Because of the similarity of this issue with that of the previous session, the pupils do not find it difficult to imagine that the depth of the water can also play a part in the height of the wave.
The pupils propose an experimental device to test this hypothesis. It is developed collectively.
The teacher then explains that the experiment is difficult to implement (but nothing prevents the testing, of course!), and offers, for this reason, to carry it out "virtually", via a multimedia animation.

Set up and progress of the session

The pupils are divided into small groups, ideally in pairs, each group having a computer at their disposal, with the animation uploaded onto the screen.
The interactive animation proceeds in several phases:
- Initially, the pupil visualizes how a wave is created, spreads, and amplifies when the depth decreases.
- Then, he follows the appearance of a tsunami (generated by an underwater earthquake) and receives information on the action to be taken.



Animation " tsunamis "

The teacher asks the pupils to properly observe what happens on approaching the coast: it is seen that the wave slows down (see previous session), but also that it is straightens out. It can also be noted that the wave is preceded by a “hollow” (a trough), similar to the withdrawal of the sea mentioned in the testimony of session 3-1.

Scientific note:
- LThe withdrawal of the sea before the arrival of the tsunami does not always happen but it is common. When the seabed is deformed (which causes the tsunami), one side is raised, and the other is lowered. When it is close to the epicentre, if the coast is on the lowered side, the trough of the wave arrives first: there is a very large withdrawal of the sea. If the coast is on the raised side… then a withdrawal is not observed. When it is far from the epicentre, on the other hand, a withdrawal can be observed, but it is weaker.
- This withdrawal of the sea cannot be confused with a downward tide: whereas the tide takes several hours to recede, the withdrawal heralding the tsunami takes only a few minutes.

The teacher can tell the story of Tilly Smith, a young girl of 11 years, on holiday in Phuket in December 2004, who saw the sea withdrawing rapidly and warned her family as well as the emergency services of the imminent arrival of a tsunami (she had studied this phenomenon a few weeks earlier in class). The beach was evacuated just in time, saving the life of tens of people.

Conclusion

The class writes a collective conclusion, for example: PAs the depth of the water decreases, the height of wave increases. Often, the arrival of the tsunami is preceded by a phase of withdrawal of the sea. Such a withdrawal must be interpreted as a sign of danger.

Experimental alternative

The study of the relation between the depth of water and the height of wave can be done in an experimental way… but it requires a large transparent container (larger than the aquariums which are in general available in schools. One meter long is the minimum…). You will also need a digital camcorder because the effect to be measured (change in wave height) is small, and the phenomenon is too fast to be seen.
For these two reasons, we propose this experiment in the form of an alternative… but few classes will be actually able to implement it
The session begins with the same question as described at the beginning, but the experiment is completed collectively.
To simulate the approach towards the coast, it is sufficient to tilt the container, which has the consequence of having one side of the container deeper than the other side.
A wave is generated by withdrawing an object which was put beforehand into water, and the propagation of the wave is filmed. Colouring the water makes this observation easier. Moreover, on the two sides of the tray, two small pieces of wood are placed, which will allow, by the persistence of a wet trace, to see the maximum height reached by the wave.


On the left, where the depth is lower (because of the slope of the tray), the height of the wave is greater than on the right. This effect is not very pronounced, because of the small size of the container. The longer the container is, the better it works. Ideally, an aquarium of several meters long would be needed to properly model a tsunami.


Grade 3/4/5 of Marc Rudeau (Serres-sur-Arget)

It is essential to be able to film the experiment and review the film in slow motion, or even frame by frame. This makes it possible to note the height variation of the wave, and also its deceleration


 


Session 3-5: How to be protected?

duration

1 hour

material

For each pupil:
- a photocopy of sheet 37

objectives

- Tsunamis are not located in any particular place: all coasts can experience them
- tsunami can be predicted when a triggering event has been detected (earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide), but only some hours in advance
- In the event of tsunami, one needs: to take shelter on higher ground (hills, buildings), stay there several hours (several waves), bring water, bring a radio

skills

- Formulate a hypothesis, debate
- Apply knowledge in different scientific contexts

main Subject

Sciences

Initial question

The teacher asks the pupils where, according to them, the tsunami hazard zones are. Of course, they are the coastal areas… and more specifically those located in seismic areas (see session 2-8). However, as we saw that a tsunami can be spread over thousands of kilometers, it can easily be imagined that even the non-seismic areas can be affected by tsunamis created elsewhere
The teacher distributes a photocopy of sheet 37, to each group of pupils, presenting tsunamis which have recently occurred on the French coasts.
He hosts a collective discussion with the goal of noting that in France, some tsunamis can be expected, in general of low magnitude. Certain areas, however, are more exposed (Reunion, Guadalupe, Martinique), because of their seismic activity or volcanic and their insular nature. The only French territory with a tsunami Specialized Emergency Plan ("Plan de Secours Spécialisé" aka PSS) is French Polynesia. This report is noted in the scientific notebook.

Pedagogical note
Just like for earthquakes, there are two scales, one of magnitude, the other of intensity, to quantify the 'strength' of a tsunami (directly connected to the height of the wave reaching the coast), or its severity in terms of damage and human casualties. These scales are little known, compared with the Richter or MSK for earthquakes, and do not seem essential to us for a primary school project. Neverthelsee, for teachers willing to mention them, further information can be found here: http://www.prevention2000.org/catnat/risques/tsunami/accueil_tsunami.htm

The teacher then asks the question: “If you live in an area at risk, how can you be protected?” The pupils work in pairs and write their ideas in their scientific notebooks.

Pooling

The collective discussion makes it possible to identify three main tracks:
- Recognize the warning signs of a tsunami.
- How to behave (before, during, after).
- Build appropriate structures (dams, buildings on high ground…).

Recognize the warning signs already mentioned previously:
- An underwater or coastal earth tremor (see session 2).
- Observe a fast withdrawal of the sea (much faster than a downward tide).

It is necessary to keep informed in various ways (radio, public announcements), or to observe the animal behaviors (massive flight of birds, escape of domestic or wild animals …).



Grade 3/4/5 of Marc Rudeau (Serres-sur-Arget)

The action to be taken in the event of tsunami is collectively discussed: What should be done? Why is this a good (or bad) idea?
- If at sea (on a boat): it is beneficial to navigate away from the coast, because the effect of the tsunami focuses on the coast.
- If on the ground, it is necessary go to higher ground not to be submerged: hills, roofs of the buildings…
- And it is necessary to stay there several hours (the tsunami is composed of several waves, which will arrive every 10 to 30 minutes: the first is often not the strongest!).
- Bring water and a radio (with batteries, obviously).

Pedagogical notes
- The emergency concept is differently perceived among the pupils: for some, it is very important to carry money, precious objects, identity papers, while for others, it is more important to leave quickly. This debate can be animated by comparing this situation with another one that the pupils know well (because the school organizes fire drills several times a year): fire alarm. In the event of a fire alarm, everyone leaves, immediately, leaving their stuff.
- Another point on which it can be difficult to obtain a consensus is the need to call the emergency services. For some, it is essential, while for others, it is to be avoided because it will cause a problem if everyone calls at the same time, and also “the emergency services have other things to do than to be on the telephone".
- Some pupils can make fanciful proposals on the way in which one can be protected from a tsunami (carry life jackets, remain at home by closing the doors…), showing that they have difficulty picturing the violence of a tsunami. In this case some videos here can be projected. Although these videos have been selected so as not to show shocking images (corpses), they are sufficiently striking so that the scope of the damage can be imagined well.

Written evidence and conclusion

The class then makes a collective illustrated poster on the way of to be protected from a tsunami.

Multimedia extension
The last multimedia animation created for this project is a quiz, where some questions deal with tsunamis.

 

 

 

 

Project partners

La main à la pâte Foundation ESA